Strongholds of Chosŏn, ancient Korea.

Lecture by Francis Macouin, Retired Chief Curator of MNAA-Guimet.

From the capital to the smallest sub-prefecture, the towns and villages were contained in a fortified wall such as the town of Nagan (South Chŏlla). For the security of the kingdom there were added fortresses installed in mountainous sites or defending strategic points such as the island of Kanghwa at the mouth of the Han River. The culmination of this architecture of stone and brick, with walls undulating according to the relief, is revealed in the preserved and carefully restored fortifications of Hwasŏng (Suwŏn) completed in 1796.


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